DevelopingVoices

The Human Voice: An Instrument in Residence, Part 1 ~

The human voice: an instrument in residence

Singers are fortunate to have a traveling instrument requiring no special assembly or installation. Even so, it is helpful to understand the make-up of the singing apparatus.

The Human Larynx

The larynx is the main structure of the human singing instrument. It is an organ suspended in the neck from the hyoid (the only bone in the larynx), and it is situated below the jaw in the neck. Its composition is primarily cartilage (seven cartilages total), tissue, membrane, and muscle.

Because the main part of the larynx is in a state of suspension, it can make excursions up and down and side to side in the neck. For singing and speaking, the laryngeal structure tilts and vibrates.  

An interesting feature of the larynx is the epiglottis, which is a leaf-shaped flap of cartilage located behind the tongue at the top of the larynx. Its function is to seal the windpipe during swallowing so that food or saliva is not accidentally inhaled. Thus, the larynx is instrumental in the prevention of choking.

Phonation

Phonation is the sound of singing and speech which occurs from the oscillation of the vocal folds and resonance of the vocal tract. Singing and speaking require a combination of changes in position, tension and mass of the vocal folds.

Vocal Folds

Vocal folds are composed of mucous membrane stretched horizontally across the top opening of the larynx. The folds are situated just below the pharyngeal tract and above where the tract splits into the trachea and the esophagus within the larynx. They are open for breathing and closed for swallowing, sealing the windpipe from food and liquid.

Vocal folds are essential for phonation or vocalization. Phonation requires the vibrate, modulating the flow of air being expelled from the lungs during phonation.

The size of the folds affects voice pitch. Vocal folds begin growing to their full adult length and thickness during adolescence.

TO DO:

 I. Body Mapping the Larynx:

II. Body Mapping the Vocal Folds:

 

III. Body Mapping Tension/Relaxation:

References

Birch-Iensen, M., Borgström, P. S., & Ekberg, O. (1988). Cineradiography in closed and open pharyngeal swallow. Acta radiologica29(4), 407-410.

Lumb, A. B. (2016). Nunn’s applied respiratory physiology eBook. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Mittal, R. (2011, April). Motor function of the pharynx, esophagus, and its sphincters. In Colloquium Series on Integrated

Systems Physiology: From Molecule to Function (Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 1-84). Morgan & Claypool Life Sciences.

Trollinger, V. (2005). Performing arts medicine and music education: What do we really need to know?. Music Educators Journal92(2), 42-48.

Vocal folds. (2018). ScienceDaily. Retrieved 31 December 2018, from www.sciencedaily.com/terms/vocal_folds.htm

Zveglic, E. A. (2014). Speech and singing. In Recognizing and Treating Breathing Disorders (Second Edition) (pp. 203-214).